The Climate zones and its cycles

Climate Zones


Climates zones are regions are based on the long-term average weather pattern that are typically over a period of 30 years. These climate zones are bounded by location of latitude and altitude. Within each zone are terrain water bodies. The climate zones are around the poles. The sunlight rays reaches the earth at different angles at these zones. The sunlight rays determines the seasons as well. Climate zones can be seen on a map.

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The Four Seasons of the Temperate Zone

This is “Four Seasons” song from Vivaldi. The song was also a poem.

There are four seasons in the temperate zone: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter.


During winter the trees sleep, they are brown and bare. Under the snow there are millions of seeds, each waiting for a little warmth and water to awaken it. Under the ground, beneath the snow, there are also some animals sleeping. These animals are waiting for warmth as well to come out. As the winter subside, the snow melt and soak into the ground. The grounds get soft and the seeds get wet.

Tiny plants burst out of the seed, and the roots pushes down. This is time for the hibernating animals to come out.

Some animals that hibernate during winter.


Spring is here when new plants poke out of the ground. The land turns green, the trees blossom, and this means there is now food for the animals. Animals that migrated returns. Spring is full of life as the days grow longer.


Soon summer will begin.The air grows warm; the leaves and flower petals begin to drop, and fruits begin to grow on the branches of trees. Summer is warm.

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As Autumn approaches, the flowers petals have all gone and there are lots of berries, nuts, and fruit. The seeds of the plants travel in the air or on animal’s fur. Some will be eaten by birds and animals. Autumn is the time for some animals to fatten themselves with seed and store some as well for the approaching winter. However, if the summer grows too warm, it could cause heat waves, or drought.

As the ground gets cold and hard, soon their will be no water for roots to find. Once again, the trees and some animals must sleep until spring comes around again. Yet, some other animals change their appearance to adapt to the coldness. Again it is winter.

The arctic fox has a beautiful white (bluish) coat that blends well in the snow; however the colour of its coat changes to a brown or gray appearance during the summer.

The Earth’s Tilt Causes the Seasons

The amount of sunlight on any part of the earth is caused by the earth’s tilt. When the earth is at one end of its path around the sun, the North pole is tilted toward the sun and the south pole is tilted away from the sun. When most of the sun falls upon the northern half of the world, keeping it warm, this causes summer.

At the same time the southern half does not have much light, so it is cool. This causes winter. Once the earth makes a quarter turn around the sun, the amount of sun in the northern part is lighter, it is going into autumn; and the southern part is starting to get more light, so it is going into autumn.

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The Two Seasons of the Tropics

In the tropics, there are just two seasons: the wet (or rainy) season and dry season. The weather in the tropics are controlled by the tropical rain belt. During the year, the tropical rain belt moves from the northern to the southern tropics and back again.

When the tropical rain belt in the southern hemisphere, the northern hemisphere is experiencing a dry season and sparser precipitation. When the tropical rain belt is in the northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere is experiencing the dry season. Countries located at the equator experience two wet and two dry seasons, as the rain belt passes over twice a year.

Rainy Season

During the rainy season the ground is soaked with water on many days. The grass is green and the streams and rivers are mostly swollen. Some animals retreat to higher grounds to avoid possible flooding. This is the period to expect tropical cyclones, street flooding, and river flooding. In between the rain there may be moments of dry spells (a short period of severe dry weather, less severe than a drought).

Sometimes the gusty winds are strong enough to through down trees or cause some damage to property. There may also be some landslide. However, the amount of rain varies from one area to another in the tropics. Some areas of the topics are wetter than other areas. Some are drier than other areas.

The Amazon gets almost 9 feet of rain every year.
The Sahara desert gets between 2 and 10 centimetres of water every year.
In Trinidad and Tobago, the rainy season is between June to December. The dry season is between January to mid-April. Rainfall is about 5.5 feet each year.

Dry Season

During the dry seasons, hot days are more frequent. The earth gets dry, bare and hot. The leaves fall to the ground and dry faster. Some water holes and rivers may dry up. There are frequent threats for forest fires. With infrequent rain, the collection of surface water may cause an increase in mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases. The lack of water causes some animals to migrate to more fertile spots. On an average month, precipitation is below 60 millimetres or 2.4 inches.

The dry season humidity is very low. People can feel hot and lazy. People have to drink a lot of liquids in order to keep hydrated.


Think of things people do during the wet and dry seasons. List the activities that take place in each season.

The Daily Cycle

Day and Night

The sun moves over the sky and reveals the blue sky. Soon it moves towards the horizon and silence and darkness sets in. This is day and night. You have seen this many times.

During the day, the sky is bright and the clouds can be seen. Many insects and animals are active during the day.
At night, the stars and moon come out and light up the dark sky. The night is generally quiet except for a few insects and animals that are active.

The Reason for Day and Night

The the sun does not move, but rather the world you live on is turning towards the sun. At one time half of the earth is covered with light from the sun and the other half is in darkness. No sunlight can fall on the dark side, until the earth turns.

The earth turns on its axis. When the part turns directly in line to the sun, it is daytime. Where the light is strongest, it is midday. Night time is on the part of the world that does not see the sun.

The 24-hour Cycle

There is a 24-hour day/night pattern as a result of one full rotation of the earth around its own axis. This is referred to as diurnal cycle. This pattern is seen in the environment and in the climate. Our body also has an internal clock that affects our mood, mental alertness, hunger, and heart function.

At the setting of the sun, our body feel tired and prepare to sleep.
After a night’s restful sleep, you feel energetic to take on the beginning of the day.

Our biological clock is thrown off when we do things that are out of the ordinary.

We feel Jet lag after traveling on an airplane.
People who work shift jobs disrupt their biological clock.

We all have an internal body clock. It gives us the idea to sleep, relax, or eat. If you want to stay in the 24-hour cycle, your must ensure your brain get the sunlight it needs each day. We also must make sure we eat healthy foods in order to keep up with our internal body-clock.

See also:

Elementary Spanish Words for weather

Our internal system relies on the daily rhythm, our biological clock, to maintain our immune system function. It is more likely the body will fight infection if it get enough rest.