Surface Layers (O)
This layer has dead plants and animal organisms that are slowly decomposing. Sometimes this layer is thick, sometimes it is thin; and others it may not be present.
This layer has humus, organic matter, roots, worms, insects, and other living organism, small rock and mineral fragments. It is dark in colour.
This layer has roots and other living organisms, materials leached by water from the upper layers, clay, rock fragments,and minerals. It is lighter in colour than topsoil.
Parent Material (C)
This layer comprises of materials leached by water from the upper layer and partly weathered rock fragments. It is somewhat orange and yellow in colour.
A mass of rock such as granite, basalt, quartz, limestone or sandstone that forms the parent material for some soils.