On maps you see the various natural and man-made features on the earth’s surfaced. You have already come across some land forms already, such as continents and islands. Here are some more.
Soil is a natural resource found on the earth’s surface. It is mainly composed of mineral, nutrients, water, air, other inorganic particles and residues of plant and animals (organic matter).
There are six types of soil: sand, loamy, and clay, silt, peat, and chalk. The type of soil determines the growth of plant life.
Types of Soil
You can test your soil to find out what type it is. Water an area of soil with a watering can. If surface water disappears quickly the soil is sandy or gravelly; but if the water remains longer on the surface it is clay soil. You can also touch the soil. Gently squeeze it; if it feels slimy and sticky and remains in as a lump when you release pressure, the soil is clay. If the soil crumbles in your hand easily it is sandy. Peaty soil feels spongy; loam and silt feel smooth and retain their shape longer than sandy soil, as it is not as rigid as clay.
Place a handful of soil from different places into large glass jars. Fill each with water. Stir well and leave to settle for two hours. Observe your samples and record what you see.
Remember: It is important to always wear gloves when digging, wash your hands after touching the soil, and never taste or smell the soil.
You can look through a magnifying glass to observe the soil.
Sandy soil has particles that sink and form a layer on the bottom. The water looks fairly clear.
Clay or silty soil have particles that sink to the bottom and form a think layer. The water looks fairly clear.
Peaty soil have small amount of sediment that settles and a lot of bits floating on the surface of the water. The water is a bit cloudy.
Chalky soil have layers of white gritty fragments on the bottom of the water. The water is pale greyish in colour.
Loamy soil have layered sediments that settles at the bottom of the water and very fine particles floating. The water is fairly clear.
What type of soil have you gathered?